3. Cooperating Bodies and Human Cadres

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The Public concerns towards nuclear energy is due to painful memories of the effects of the nuclear bombs dropped during world war II, and the exciting news media coverage of nuclear accidents. It is worth to mention that nuclear explosion is impossible as it is usually controllable and not as nuclear bombs because of reactor design and the type of fuel used.As for Fukushima, Japan, explosion took place due to chemical reaction (not nuclear explosion) caused by hydrogen gas accumulation resulting from reaction of fuel cladding with cooling water.Nuclear accidents receive wide media coverage and attract the attention of public and various concerned. Many studies emphasized that such coverage may lead to overestimation of accident possibilities and its risks and thus the potential deaths from disasters publicized by media are seen as higher than caused by other events but not widely publicized.There are working nuclear power plants located near major cultural centers and densely populated in countries distinguished of tourism booming and even using nuclear plants as a touristic attraction. For example there are 6 operating nuclear plants are located less than 200 km far from Paris, and there are three nuclear plants are located less than 200 km far from Madrid (in Spain). Also, Bardwell nuclear plant is located 70 km far from London. In Brazil, Angara nuclear plant is considered as a touristic attraction and it improves the standard of living of population
- Due to their long experience, the other three nuclear entities possess, they form the institutional infrastructure for the Egyptian program for peaceful uses of nuclear power .These are: The Atomic Energy Authority is a research body with a cumulative experience of more than sixty years in all types of nuclear technology. It possesses long experience in operating two research reactors and plays an effective role through participation of its experts in handling of radioactive wastes, training and qualifying human resources. The Nuclear Materials Authority is also a research body, which performs its assignments in the exploration and mining activities of nuclear power plants fuel ore inside Egypt as one of the sources to secure the supply of nuclear fuel for the El-Dabaa plant. The Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Authority performs all its regulatory and organizational assignments relating to nuclear safety and security and all that ensures protection of individuals, property and the environment against hazards of radiation exposure. In order to achieve this, it is granted all necessary powers in accordance with the law on its establishment. It is the body, entitled to grant, suspend or revoke all types of authorizations beginning with Site Permit, construction permit, pre-operational tests permit, fuel loading permit, operating license and its renewal, as well as decommissioning licenses.
We have agreed with the Russian party on a local participation ratio of 20% in the first unit that increases gradually to reach 35% in the fourth unit. To achieve this, a minimized national committee to overcome difficulties was formed, comprising ministries of Electricity, Military Production, Petroleum, Arab Organization for Industrialization to develop a strategy for technology localization, aiming at overcoming difficulties and obstacles that the national companies and subcontractors that will potentially be involved in the project implementation might face. Also, the NPPA in cooperation with the Russian Contractor have organized a seminar on 1st of July 2017 where more than 150 Egyptian company were invited. In addition,  NPPA website was initiated to facilitate registration for companies willing to participate in the project, by registration and submitting their portfolios, including past experiences and projects. A committee made of the NPPA and Russian party representatives was set up to assess the potential of the Egyptian companies. Also, a second seminar has been organized in title "Nuclear Industry Suppliers Forum" on 25th of November 2018, and a third one on 8th October 2019.
The NPPA exerts a great effort to qualify human resources. We take advantage of the grants, training courses that the IAEA and the Arabic Atomic Energy Authority hold inside or outside Egypt. We also benefit from activating bilateral cooperation agreements with countries, such as South Korea, from which 12 persons have got their Master’s degrees in nuclear reactors, in addition to other 15 trainees who attended training courses on the management of the infrastructure of nuclear plants projects. Within the cooperation with Japan and the Russian Federation, three groups of trainees were sent to the Russian Federation, each of 15 persons, to be trained on nuclear technology, the management of nuclear fuel and spent fuel. In addition, we have programs with our consultant Worley and internal training at the NPPA. The number of personnel working on the project is dynamically changing, it depends on the project phase. The NPPA works on continuously supporting its cadres through the announcements made to meet the requirements of this phase and preparing for the next phases. The NPPA has announced its need to hire 234 technicians and engineers in nuclear reactor related positions. This number will increase with the commencement of construction works and the development of the project phases. These positions were announced in two stages, the first for 152 and the second for 82 positions. We are about to complete the tests within this first announcement. f Both fluent English and proficiency in computer skills are a pre-requisite, and the applicants are tested for this. The last test is the face-to-face interview. And we have published two recruitment announcements on September 2019.
Training of Egyptian personnel is being conducted by the main contractor of the nuclear power plant. The contract concluded with Rosatom includes training of Egyptian staff on the operation and maintenance works, in addition to training on safety, design, construction and commissioning tests. More than 2100 personnel will be trained on operation, maintenance and management of nuclear reactors theoretically and then practically at the reference plant and Russian factories for not less than a year. They will also be trained on the simulator of El Dabaa plant, which is being under construction now, and will participate in commissioning tests. They will start in the second half of 2020, and groups will be sent for training till 2026.
-The operation and maintenance of the plant is responsibility of the Egyptian Party through well-trained personnel, whereas the Russian responsibility during the first years of operation after final plant handover t will be restricted to the provision of technical support in operation and maintenance and supply of spare parts. Demand on these services will gradually decrease by gaining experience in these fields.