Our bodies are daily exposed to radiation from natural resources as cosmic rays, soil, food, water and air and also from artificial resources as radiotherapy, travelling by planes, watching TV, neon light and finally nuclear plants. Fake scientists claim that radiation is harmful at any level and even low radiation exposure effects on human health and causes cancer and birth defect. For example the absorbed annual radiation dose by a resident next to the borders of an operating nuclear plant doesn’t exceed half of radiation dose absorbed due to one – time examination of his teeth and the maximum annual dose received from working nuclear plant is 5 mrem (unit of measuring  radiation effect) which is 2% less than the total annual dose that individual's exposed annually from natural and artificial resources and thus that claim is only to spread panic among people by fabricating baseless scenarios.It should be known that all activates resulting from using ionizing radiation are subjected to strict regulatory standards aimed at protecting individuals and environment from harmful effects of radiation.
Opponents of nuclear energy claimed that but actually it is not true as nuclear safety is applied in many in stages including site selection, design, construction, and operation. This is accompanied with right management and operation of the nuclear plant to achieve a high level of safety. All these stages are subjected to strict regulatory standards and also the highest standards of quality, and demonstrations provided by the license applicant to the competent authorities.The history of nuclear plants operating, exceeds half a century, confirmed that, as any industry, may be exposed to malfunctions or accidents but it remains the safest technology that is not comparable with any other industry or energy resource ; for example accident victims in power plants in the OECD countries during the past 50 years were 2259 in coal plants ,1043 in natural gas plants 14 in water plants and zero in nuclear plants as for other countries of the world victims were 18000 in coal plants 1000 in natural gas plants 30000 in water plants and 31 in nuclear plants (Chernobyl).
Opponents of nuclear energy claim that countries around the world are turning away from using nuclear energy and Egypt by choosing it, is going in the opposite direction. According to international statistics there are 433 working reactors in 31 countries and 55 reactor under construction in 14 countries among them 37 in China ,11 in Russia ,6 India ,5 south Korea, and in Ukraine and Japan (where Chernobyl and Fukushima accident took place ) by the year 2011.IAEA & WNA report that most countries affirmed on the necessity of nuclear energy and the lessons learned from accidents must be studied and safety of the existing plants should be reviewed.Countries after Fukushima could be classified into the following group:-Countries decided to go ahead on its current and future plans to establish nuclear plants and review its existing plants under the nuclear safety standards also keep on plants under construction (U.S.A, France, Russia, South Korea, Argentina, Sweden, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Bella Russia, Lithuania, Kazakhstan, Pakistan and the Netherlands).Countries decided to continue their plans to construct their first nuclear plants and taking into consideration the design modification after lessons learned from Fukushima accident (Jordan, U.A.E, Poland, Turkey and Vietnam).Countries suspended approval of new nuclear plants but keeping its nuclear program for operational and under construction plants (Ukraine, Brazil, China Finland, Malaysia, UK, India and Japan).Countries froze or postponed its nuclear program after the accident waiting for lessons learned (Indonesia, Italy, Thailand and Switzerland).As for Germany and Belgium they took the decision years ago phase out new nuclear plants because of anti- nuclear parties (Green Parties).
-There are some sites under detailed investigations to be used for complementing the nuclear program such as Negeila-1 and Negeila-2 southern Matrouh. These are the most suitable sites for the nuclear program. Field studies for these sites are in progress, being implemented in cooperation with worldwide nuclear technology providers and experts.
-Diversifying the sources of electricity generation is important to secure the electricity supplies , and so not to depend on one source. The strategy of the Ministry of Electricity and Renewable Energy is to diversify the electricity production mix in order to achieve better security of energy supply. In addition, there are many other factors that make it inevitable to use nuclear energy, among which is that it helps to decrease the carbon dioxide emissions and to mitigate the global warming phenomenon. Also, the nuclear technology is an economic source, and it helps to achieve a shift in quality standards and industry development.
The NPPA exerts a great effort to qualify human resources. We take advantage of the grants, training courses that the IAEA and the Arabic Atomic Energy Authority hold inside or outside Egypt. We also benefit from activating bilateral cooperation agreements with countries, such as South Korea, from which 12 persons have got their Master’s degrees in nuclear reactors, in addition to other 15 trainees who attended training courses on the management of the infrastructure of nuclear plants projects. Within the cooperation with Japan and the Russian Federation, three groups of trainees were sent to the Russian Federation, each of 15 persons, to be trained on nuclear technology, the management of nuclear fuel and spent fuel. In addition, we have programs with our consultant Worley and internal training at the NPPA. The number of personnel working on the project is dynamically changing, it depends on the project phase. The NPPA works on continuously supporting its cadres through the announcements made to meet the requirements of this phase and preparing for the next phases. The NPPA has announced its need to hire 234 technicians and engineers in nuclear reactor related positions. This number will increase with the commencement of construction works and the development of the project phases. These positions were announced in two stages, the first for 152 and the second for 82 positions. We are about to complete the tests within this first announcement. f Both fluent English and proficiency in computer skills are a pre-requisite, and the applicants are tested for this. The last test is the face-to-face interview. And we have published two recruitment announcements on September 2019.
Nuclear industry developed and improved technologies of reactors during seven decades throughout the following main generations:Gen I reactors, which started for testing and demonstration, it was commercially developed in the 1950s, 1960s.Gen II reactors, most of them are currently operating.Gen III and Gen III+ reactors, which were developed 1990s and most of them include nuclear reactor under construction and recently completedGen IV reactors that offer new alternative fuel and coolants but are not expected to be commercially available before 2030-2040.Some of nuclear technology vendors are also developing Small and Medium Reactors (SMRs) aiming to improve economic and flexibility of nuclear energy use with expanding access chances to new segments of energy market. Such reactors attract countries where large capacity plants are unsuitable due to electrical grid limitation or site characteristics (cooling water availability) in addition to simple design which reduces manufacturing cost and use of prefabricated technology instead of on-site construction. Thus SMRs are expected to solve the biggest obstacle facing large nuclear plants which is the long constructing period and the high capital cost.
Opponents of nuclear energy claim that final disposal of highly radioactive nuclear wastes has no practical solutions. In fact, it is a common challenge to the nuclear industry worldwide, but it can be solved.Operation of nuclear plants causes emission of solid, liquid and gaseous radioactive wastes with levels of radioactivity ranging from low, medium and high. Nuclear plants are equipped with systems to deal with wastes according to its nature and quality. All stages of handling, transporting and storing radioactive waste are carried out according to strict standards and procedures regulated by international and local standards and regulations basically aim to protect humans, property and the environment from any radioactive release.Spent fuel are considered high radioactive wastes in some countries. The common practice that it is stored in water pools inside the plant for 4-5 years until its level of radioactivity and temperature drops to a level that can be transported and stored in other facilities equipped with the necessary arrangements for radiation protection and fuel cooling for longer periods that may reach decades.There are 2 types of radioactive waste storage for these facilities;First type (wet storage) in which spent fuel is kept under the water surface in pools equipped with cooling and water purification circuitsSecond type is used in El Dabaa (dry storage) in which spent fuel is kept in special containers/casks and to be cooled by air "same containers used in spent nuclear fuel transporting".As for Arab Republic of Egypt; the Supreme Council of Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy headed by His Excellency president Abd El Fattah El Sisi in July 2017 approved the Egyptian Strategy for the management of radioactive wastes and spent nuclear fuel and decommissioning of nuclear plants. All the competent nuclear authorities and relevant bodies set that strategy which aim to provide the suitable solutions to handle the radioactive wastes and to keep human and environment safe and not to bear future generations additional burdens taking into account the economic aspects and modern scientific trends.The contract with Russian Party included fuel constructing special dry storage facility for dry storage of spent nuclear fuel for a period of 100 years so if in the future a new technology may enable us to use it, and then it is disposed in the correct way followed in all counties of the world. In addition, the EPC contract included establishing units for treatment of gaseous, solid and liquid radioactive waste
-The operation and maintenance of the plant is responsibility of the Egyptian Party through well-trained personnel, whereas the Russian responsibility during the first years of operation after final plant handover t will be restricted to the provision of technical support in operation and maintenance and supply of spare parts. Demand on these services will gradually decrease by gaining experience in these fields.
Despite its long history in safe operation since 1954, skeptics of nuclear energy focus on fears of horrible effects and consequences of bombs dropped on Hiroshima & Nagasaki during world war II. in addition to the wrong belief that nuclear energy has not been matured and fears of repetition of accidents as Three Mile Island in 1979, Chernobyl 1986 and lately Fukushima 2011.International efforts are concerted to address nuclear and radiological accidents. The IAEA plays significant role in coordination of these efforts by promoting adherence to and implementation of international legal instruments on nuclear safety adopted under its auspices. This includes the Convention on Nuclear Safety and the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, as well as the two conventions that are the basis for the international emergency preparedness and response framework: The Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency.Generally speaking, all nuclear accidents are subject to deep analyzes and studies by the international community which result in continuous upgrading and development of nuclear safety standards, which increases confidence in the safety of nuclear facilities.